WHO says that none of the 53 countries of the European region are in a position to meet the goal of ending the emerging problem of obesity by the year 2025.
The UN agency has clarified that obesity is a complex problem, due to which, it is not possible to stop this growing challenge from emerging with any single remedy or intervention.
In view of this, emphasis has been laid on ensuring high level political resolve in national policies.
A complete description as follows :
Obesity is a term used to describe a person who has gained a lot of weight due to the high amount of fat in their body.A person's weight can usually be estimated in a number of ways. The widely used method of measuring obesity is the body mass index (BMI).Body mass index (BMI) is determined by measuring weight in kilograms and dividing it by metres squared of length. You can use the NHS's BMI Healthy Weight Calculator to find your own BMI:
• If your BMI is between 25 and 29, you are overweight.
• If your BMI is between 30 and 40, you are considered obese.
• If your BMI is over 40 you are considered very obese ("unhealthily obese")
Apart from this, obesity is also detected by measuring waist fat. People with very fat waists (94 cm or more in men and 80 cm or more in women) have a higher risk of developing health problems associated with obesity.
The risks of obesity:
Obesity can increase your risk of many serious diseases, such as:
Main objectives for treatment of obesity:
• Preventing further weight gain
• Lose weight gradually through a low-calorie diet and regular exercise
• Preventing weight gain from re-gaining
• Improve health and reduce problems caused by obesity
Some people prefer to consult with a trainer or dietitian, while others prefer to be part of a weight loss group, which is organised either through local clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) or commercial organisations. You can use the internet application NHS BMI Tracker Tool to check your weight.A drug called orlistat is also used for weight loss. But it should be used in conjunction with the above remedies and not as a substitute. Your doctor can advise whether orlistat is suitable for you.Most people need help to change their thinking and behaviour that is harmful to their health.
Weight loss surgery
Surgery for weight loss is usually used as a last resort option for people who suffer from severe obesity problems.
Causes of obesity
In most cases of obesity, a person consumes more calories than they burn. Calories that are not used by the body are stored as fat. Apart from this, this problem can also increase due to poor lifestyle:
• Consuming high energy foods or easily available junk food
• People living a less active lifestyle than before and working jobs that don't involve physical exertion, such as sitting for long periods of time watching TV, playing video games, or browsing the Internet
• Travelling in your own vehicle or public vehicle, which results in less walking
There are many health problems that can lead to obesity.
Research on obese people who completed a 12-month commercial weight loss program found that they lost about 5-10% of their body weight.It doesn't seem like a big achievement though. But even a slight reduction in weight is very beneficial for good health. Losing even a small amount of weight reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart diseases.There is no miracle cure for obesity. Weight loss programs can be quite challenging, but they are successful in reducing obesity by those who follow the rules of those programs consistently.
Gaining a little weight usually does not show any signs of obesity. But if a few extra kilos are put on then many symptoms start developing which affect your daily life.
short term problems
Obesity can lead to a number of problems:
Long term problems:
Changes caused by obesity are often not visible but they can seriously harm health:
• High blood pressure
• High cholesterol level
Both problems can increase the risk of heart disease:
• Coronary heart disease, which can lead to a heart attack.
• Stroke can cause disability and can be fatal.
Complexity due to obesity
Obesity can lead to type 2 diabetes which can affect a person's life for a long time. An estimated half of all diabetes cases are linked to obesity. The main symptoms of diabetes are:
• Excessive thirst
• Frequent visits to the toilet, especially at night
• Feeling more tired
Apart from the everyday problems caused by obesity, many people also face psychological problems as:
• Low self-esteem
• Loss of confidence
• Feeling isolated from society
Due to this, relationships with family members and friends are affected and you may also have depression.
Most of the problems of obesity are due to overeating and walking less or doing less physical activity. If you take in a large amount of energy from your food, but do not use this energy through exercise or other physical activity, then this energy gets stored as fat.
The unit of measurement of the energy level of food is the calorie.The average physically active man needs 2,500 calories to maintain a healthy weight, and the physically active woman needs an average of 2,000 calories. It may seem high to you, but if you eat some special food, then you can easily get so many calories.For example, consuming a large hamburger, fries and a milkshake can add up to 1,500 calories.Another problem is that many people are not physically active, so they end up consuming a lot of calories, which get wasted and converted into fat cells.
Obesity doesn't happen overnight. It usually develops slowly due to poor diet and lifestyle.
These include a number of habits of unhealthy food choices:
• Eating fattier processed and fast foods.
• Avoiding fruits, vegetables and non-refined carbohydrates such as wholemeal bread and brown rice.
• Consuming more alcohol- Alcohol contains more calories and those who consume more alcohol often suffer from obesity.
• Habit of eating out - you eat sweets or foods high in fat and sugar in a restaurant.
• Eating more than required- If your friends or relatives also eat more, then you can also eat more than required at their behest.
• To feel comfortable – If you are depressed or depressed, you may eat more to feel good.
If the family members are used to eating bad food, then you too can learn the habit of eating bad food from your parents.Weight gain in childhood is a sign of obesity-related problems in the future. This proves that bad eating habits learned in childhood can continue even after growing up.
Limited time for physical training
Lack of physical activity is another cause of obesity. Most people's job is such that they have to work sitting at a desk all day. Apart from this, they use their car instead of going home on foot or by bicycle.When people are resting, they watch TV or play computer games and browse the Internet. They hardly exercise regularly.If you are not active enough, you may not be able to use the energy you got from food and store more calories as fat.The Department of Health recommends adults do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week, such as bicycling or brisk walking.However, if you are obese and trying to lose weight, you may need to exercise more. In some cases, you may be advised to exercise for up to five hours.
Some people believe that weight loss is of no use because obesity runs in their family and it is in their genes too.Some rare genetic problems, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, can cause obesity, but there is no specific reason why most people cannot lose weight.It may be true that you inherited certain genetic conditions from your parents such as taking longer to expend calories (slower metabolism) or being hungrier. These problems make it difficult to lose weight but it is not impossible.In many cases, obesity is also a problem in families due to environmental factors such as poor eating habits learned in childhood.
• Cushing's syndrome, a rare disease in which steroid hormones are produced in excess.
• Underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), when your thyroid gland doesn't make enough thyroid hormone.
Weight gain can also occur as a side effect of taking the combined contraceptive pill and quitting smoking. Certain medications such as corticosteroids and antidepressants can also cause rapid weight gain.
Complications due to Obesity
Increasing weight and obesity can increase the risk of many health problems.
High blood pressure (hypertension) - this can increase the risk of a serious heart.
If you are obese, you are more likely to develop gestational diabetes or pre-eclampsia during pregnancy.
For this first you will need to measure your height and weight.Currently, body mass index (BMI) is the most accurate and reliable way to measure how much you weigh. You can calculate your BMI with a Healthy Weight Calculator.A BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 is considered a healthy weight for most adults. A BMI between 25 and 29.9 means that you have gained excess weight. Having a BMI over 30 means you are very obese.Muscle mass is not taken into account when calculating BMI. Muscles can increase weight, which can also increase your BMI and put you in the category of overweight or obese.
For example, if a heavy weight boxer can be declared obese using BMI, when he would actually be a healthy weight person.However, for most people, BMI is an accurate way of estimating weight.Healthy weight children and young people should not use BMI to measure their weight. Because their body is still developing. Children and young people should visit their doctor who will tell them whether they have gained weight or are obese based on their height and gender.Body weight is measured on a weighing scale in most centres. Then it is compared with your height, age and gender to tell whether you have gained weight or not.
In addition to calculating your BMI, your doctor will do some tests to find out what health problems you may have because of obesity. You may be tested for the following:
• Measurement of blood pressure
• Your waist thickness (the distance around your waist)
• Measurement of glucose (sugar) and lipid (fat) levels by taking a sample of your blood
Your doctor may ask about your age and social group as this can increase your risk of certain health problems.For example, some people of Asian, African or Afro-Caribbean ethnicity may have an increased risk of high blood pressure (hypertension), and some may be at a lower risk.
The easiest way to cut calories from the diet is to completely avoid high-energy foods such as fast food, processed food and sugary beverages.
A healthy diet should include:
• Plenty of fruits and vegetables
• Adequate potatoes, bread, rice, pasta and other starchy foods
• Milk and Dairy Products
• Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy protein products
• Consuming fewer foods and beverages that are high in fat and sugar.
Avoiding high salt food.
Eating certain foods like burgers, fried chicken, curry and Chinese dishes can make you gain weight very fast.Fad diets should be avoided for weight loss. For example, fasting is not safe, because during this time a person stops consuming food such as meat, fish, wheat and dairy products.These are not permanent remedies and may even make you fall ill. In addition, there may be problems like bad breath, diarrhoea and headache.
The following should be included in the right diet program -
• Providing information about food intake, behavioural changes, and healthy eating habits
• Don't put too many restrictions on the kind of food you like
• Instead of trying to lose weight in a short time, try weight loss measures gradually
Very low-calorie diet
• A bowl of cornflakes for breakfast
• Mid-Morning Snack
• Chicken Salad Sandwich at Lunch
• Low-calorie lasagne in the evening meal
• A pear after dinner
Avoid tea and coffee as they are high in calories.
Decreasing the number of calories in food does not lead to more weight gain. But if you want to lose weight, then along with reducing the number of calories, you will need to do regular exercise.Your doctor or counsellor will suggest an exercise plan suitable for you. In which you may be advised to do moderate-intensity physical activity for several hours a week.Moderate-intensity physical activity can include any activity.
Treatment of obesity
• What kind of diet should you consume
• How much exercise do you need
• Whether you need to be diagnosed and treated for problems related to obesity
Treating obesity in children
Children are becoming obese more rapidly and in view of this, obesity is being treated in children just like adults. In this direction, children are also being motivated to do a low calorie diet and regular exercise to get the welfare results.Your doctor may advise your child to consume a certain number of calories regularly. How many calories your child should eat each day will depend on his age and height.All children are advised to get at least one hour of intense exercise a week, such as running, playing football or netball.In today's technological age, which is of utmost concern is online internet surfing, in which the child should be allowed to sit for less than two hours every day (14 hours a week) to do sedentary work like watching TV, playing videos.The child should be told about these changes gradually and try to change them.
See a specialist for child obesity treatment if:
• Your child has obesity-related problems such as high blood pressure, sleep apnoea (difficulty breathing during sleep) and depression.
• Existing health problems such as hormone problems are also believed to increase obesity.
• Orlistat may be prescribed to children only in exceptional circumstances if your child has become severely obese or has severe obesity-related problems.
Surgery for obesity:
Weight loss surgery is also called bariatric surgery. It is used as a last resort for the treatment of severely obese people (abnormally increased body fat).
Life-threatening obesity usually occurs when:
• Body mass index (BMI) reaching 40 or above.
• Having a BMI of 35 or higher and a serious health problem that can be corrected by losing weight, such as type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure.
Only healthy food and regular exercise can help a person to get rid of this dreadful disease.Diet Selection A good habit can be of great help to you children who are obese in childhood may be prone to obesity in future. That's why parents should teach their children about a better lifestyle and healthy diet from an early age.It mainly talks about which food you should eat and how much you should drink every day.According to the latest facts presented in the report, sensitivity to weight at unhealthy levels in early life increases the risk of developing obesity.In addition, there are other reasons for obesity in Europe: digital marketing of unhealthy food items for children, and online games that lead to physical inactivity.