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Skin-Cancer- Meaning, Symptoms, Screening, Treatment & Prevention

Skin care, Skin Cancer, Cancer, Skin Cancer Meaning, Skin Cancer Symptoms,  Skin Cancer Screening, Skin Cancer Treatment, Skin Cancer Prevention, Health, Study, Research

5 dariyanews

5 dariyanews

5 Dariya News

21 May 2022

Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant cells also known as cancerous cells are formed in the skin tissue, that is, when skin cells start growing abnormally, it is called skin cancer. 

There are many types of skin cancer, it usually occurs in those parts of the skin that are exposed to the rays of the sun, such as the face, neck, and hands. Or sometimes it also happens in those parts which are not exposed to the sun at all. Although skin cancer can happen to people of any skin colour, it mostly occurs on fair skin because they have less amount of pigment called melanin.

Skin cancer starts in which cells of the skin?

The skin consists of several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis which is the upper or outer layer and the dermis which is the lower or inner layer.

Methods of screening of moles for skin cancer:

If you see any of these symptoms while examining moles, then you can consult your doctor immediately.

Symmetry

Border

Colour

Diameter

Enlargement


Symmetry: If your mole is not symmetry. If the moles are folded in half, and both sides are not the same.

Border: That is, the border of the mole is blurred or jagged.

Colour: Changes in the colour of the mole can be darkening, discoloration, diffuse colour or can also be of many colours like brown or red.

Diameter: If moles or moles are more than an inch in diameter.

Enlargement: A mole looks different, changing in size or colour.

Skin cancer begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three types of cells: -

Squamous cells

Basal Cells

Basal Cells

Squamous Cells: The thin, flat cells that make up the top layer of the epidermis.

Basal Cells: Below the squamous cells lie round cells.

Melanocytes: These cells make melanin and are found in the lower part of the epidermis. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its natural colour. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes produce more pigment and darken the skin.  

The following are the symptoms of skin cancer:

Various skin diseases should not be considered as skin cancer, we can identify skin cancer at the very beginning through some signs and symptoms, such as -

A sudden increase or dangling of the size, or number of moles on the skin.

Wounds, which are brown or red in colour, do not heal for a long time.

The peeling off of the wound on the skin.

Basal cell carcinoma Skin cancer is basically growth or lesion comes tuff to heal.

Frequent burning sensation around the eyes.

Flat, scaly, reddish patches on the back or chest. Over time, these patches can become quite large.

Types of skin cancer:

Basal cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Melanoma

Actinic keratosis

1. Basal cell carcinoma- Cancer that begins in the lower part of the epidermis outer layer of skin. It may appear as a small white or flesh-coloured lump that grows slowly and may bleed. Reason: Basal cell carcinomas are usually found on the areas of the body exposed to the sun. Basal cell carcinoma can rarely spread to other parts of the body. These are the most common forms of skin cancer. It is also called basal cell cancer.

2. Squamous cell carcinoma- Cancer begins in the cells that make up the epidermis outer layer of skin. It usually occurs on areas of the skin. Reason: Those who are exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight for a long time. These areas include the face, ears, lower lip, neck, arms, or back of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin can occur as a hard red bump, a scaly red patch, open sore, or wart that pops easily. There may be scabs or bleeding. Squamous cell carcinoma that has not yet spread can usually be cured.

3. Melanoma- a form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin). It can start in a mole (skin melanoma), but it can also start in other tissues, such as in the eye or intestines.

4. Actinic keratosis- a thick, scaly patch of skin that can become cancerous. It usually forms on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, scalp, back of the hands or chest. It is most common in people with fair skin. It is also called senile keratosis and solar keratosis.

The main factors responsible for skin cancer -

The main reason for this is being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from a tanning bed) for a long time, anything that increases your chances of getting the disease is called a risk factor.

Fair skin freckles and skin burns

The colour of the eyes is blue or green.

If you have ever had a sunburn in your life

The colour of the hair is red or brown.

If there is a family history of any type of skin cancer.

Certain changes in genes or hereditary syndromes:

Certain changes in genes or hereditary syndromes, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, are associated with skin cancer.

Swelling of the skin that persists for a long time.

Weakening of the immune system.

Exposure to arsenic.

If ever treated with radiation.

The chances of getting cancer increase with age and the chances of getting cancer in old age are more.

Skin cancer screening and prevention rules:

Skin Screening

Skin biopsy

1. Skin Screening: Examination of the skin for spots or spots that appear abnormal in colour, shape or size.

2. Skin biopsy: A section of abnormal looking skin is taken and examined under a microscope by a pathologist to screen for signs of cancer.

There are four main types of skin biopsy:

Shave Biopsy

Incisional Biopsy

Punch Biopsy

Excisional biopsy

1. Shave Biopsy: A sterile razor blade is used to "shave-off" the abnormal-looking growth.

2. Punch Biopsy: A special instrument called a punch or trephine is used to remove a circle of tissue from the abnormal looking growth.

3. Incisional Biopsy: A scalpel is used to remove part of the growth.

4. Excisional biopsy: A scalpel is used to remove the entire abnormal growth.

 These beneficial methods can be adopted to prevent skin cancer:

Protect your skin from the ultraviolet rays of the sun.

It is especially important to avoid sunburn, as it increases the risk of melanoma.

Using sunscreen and wearing protective clothing that covers your head as well.

If you feel any discomfort from the skin, consult a doctor immediately.

Skin cancer can start from the feet in women, so care is required.

Skin cancer can be treated in the following ways:

The different types of treatment for patients with basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis are-

Surgery Treatment

Radiation Therapy

Chemotherapy

Photodynamic therapy

Biological Therapy

Chemexfoliation

Target Therapy

Cambrasion 


1. Surgery Treatment - surgery One or more surgical procedures may be used to treat basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or actinic keratosis.

2. Radiation Therapy – Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or stop them from growing. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation to the cancer site.

3. Chemotherapy- Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, by killing the cells or stopping them from dividing.

4. Photodynamic Therapy- Photodynamic therapy is a cancer treatment that uses a drug and a type of light to kill cancer cells. A medicine that does not activate until exposure to light is injected into a vein or applied to the skin.

5. Biological Therapy - This procedure uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or used in a laboratory to promote, direct, or restore the body's natural defences against cancer. It is a type of cancer treatment.

6. Target Therapy - Target therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells. Target therapy causes less damage to cells than radiation therapy

7. Cambrasion and chemexfoliation – In this process a chemical solution is applied to the skin to dissolve the top layers of skin cells. Chemical peels may be used to treat actinic keratosis.

Do not take any type of skin issue lightly, as soon as there is discomfort, only a specialist or doctor's advice can prove to be the most suitable and effective.

 

Tags: Skin care , Skin Cancer , Cancer , Skin Cancer Meaning , Skin Cancer Symptoms , Skin Cancer Screening , Skin Cancer Treatment , Skin Cancer Prevention , Health , Study , Research

 

 

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