Standard anti-TB drugs have been used for decades, and resistance to the medicines is growing. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to, at least, isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful, first-line (or standard) anti-TB drugs. Inappropriate or incorrect use of anti-TB drugs, can cause drug resistance. In some cases more severe drug resistance can develop. Extensively drug-resistant TB, XDR-TB, is a form of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis that responds to even fewer available medicines, including the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs. To respond to this challenge, a Workshop on MDR TB for students and faculty and District TB Officers of HP was held by State Task force on RNTCP at Shobha Singh Auditorium Dr RPGMC Tanda, in which over 400 persons participated.
Dr Prahlad Kumar, Director, National TB Institute, Bangalore told that estimated 64000 cases of MDR-TB are in India, of which only 25% are detected. He added that when there is no clinical improvement despite treatment, no sputum conversion despite 2/3 months of Anti TB treatment Treatment; Sputum remaining positive after 5 months of treatment, history of contact with known MDR-TB, or History of interruptions during treatment the doctor should suspect MDR-TB. Dr Rekha Bansal Associate professor of Pulmonary Medicine, Tanda added that Disease caused by resistant bacteria fails to respond to conventional, first-line treatment. MDR-TB is treatable and curable by using second-line drugs. However second-line treatment options are limited. The extensive chemotherapy required (up to two years of treatment) is more costly and can produce severe adverse drug reactions in patients.Dr AK Bhardwaj, Chairman Zonal Task Force on TB North India, stressed the need to collectively work for TB control, especially for MDR TB. MDR-TB treatment is difficult & expensive, Highest priority is to prevent MDR through good DOTS implementation, and stressed the need to stop misuse of 1st and 2nd line drugs, and quinolones.
Dr RK Sood, District Programme Officer, National Health Mission, Kangra addressing the gathering, stated that TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air. A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected. About one-third of the world's population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with disease and cannot transmit the disease. People infected with TB bacteria have a lifetime risk of falling ill with TB of 10%. However persons with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a much higher risk of falling ill.He added that when a person develops active TB (disease), the symptoms (cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss etc.) may be mild for many months, which can lead to delays in seeking care, and result in transmission of the bacteria to others. People ill with TB can infect up to 10-15 other people through close contact over the course of a year. Without proper treatment up to two thirds of people ill with TB will die. He added that over 9.3 lakh Indians with tuberculosis, are currently going undetected and being ‘missed’ by the country’s health system.
Dr Bhanu Awasthi officiating Principal lauded the role of TB control programme in decreasing the death rate and stated that the efforts will be further strengthened with operationalsation of culture lab in the college. An exhibition of poster made by students was also organised on the occasion. Among the nursing students, the first prize was bagged by Gulshan (Group II) for the poster depicitng the theme of world TB Day, followed by Sheetal (Group V), and Kanta (group III). In The MBBS student category the best poster was by Samridhi, followed by Anurima and Anjali, while Shyamli from Cental School Yol bagged a special prize for her entry.Dr Shiv Prakash State TB officer, Dr KC Kaushal WHO consultant, Dr MK Gupta MO DR TB Site Tanda, Sh LR Sharma State IEC Officer were among experts present in the workshop.